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AUGUST - « • 




A happy Navajo CCC-ID enrollee pictured as he works re- 
storing ancient Pueblo Bonito. (See page 8. ) 




Volume VI Number 12 


Editorial John Collier 1 

Washington Office Visitors 3 

Work G. B. Arthur 5 

Prehistoric City Of Pueblo Bonito Be- 
ing Restored By Indian CCC Workers 8 

Death Calls Douglas H. Johnston, Last 

Governor Of Chickasaw Nation , 11 

The Sheep Industry Of Indians In The 

Southwest J. M. Cooper and 

Dewey Dismuke 13 

The Florida Seminole CCC Sponsors A 

Community Celebration 21 

A Foreign Observer And Authority Gives 
His Impressions And Views On In- 
dians And The Indian Service Dr. A. Grenfell Price . 23 

The North Star To Visit The Southern 

Cross 26 

Indian Art In The Modern Home Clyde C. Hall 29 

Indians And Indian Matters As Glimpsed 

In The Daily Press 31 

Mesa Verde Pine Logs Last Nearly Nine 

Centuries 32 

Indian Children Exhibit Paintings And 

Drawings In Washington 33 

Isolated Eskimos On King Island In 

Bering Sea Adopt Constitution 35 

Paiute Indian Agency Discontinued 36 

A Truck Garden On The Pine Ridge Res- 
ervation, South Dakota John M. Scott 37 

Native Navajo Rug Weavers Demonstrate 

Use Of Natural Dyes To Color Yarns 39 

"Horse Leather" - Rawhide Quirts And 

Lariats Once More Available £1 

New York Agency Moved To Buffalo 42 

Mojave Tribe Of Arizona Names^New Lake 42 

Indians In Periodical Literature 43 

CCC-ID Reports 44 


ANews Sheet for INDIANS and the INDIAN SERVICE 


what was this country like when the Indians surrendered it 
to the white man? 

A dramatic answer has presented itself just now. On the 
Pine Ridge Reservation there has been discovered a 79-acre inaccess- 
ible tableland which apparently had never been grazed by livestock 
or touched by fire. As a result, and in spite of the climatic cycle 
that has played havoc with the dust bowl, this tiny mesa represents 
the climax type of virgin grass lands. It resembles the tall -grass 
prairies of the Mississippi Valley, " has no short buffalo grass , top- 
soil two feet deep and a thick layer of humus comparable in depth and 
composition to forest litter." From the conservation standpoint, 
this mesa is comparable to the Chinese temple forests and fully as 
significant; for the researcher in botany and ecology it is a mouth- 
watering find. 

In the experience of a single life, silent changes of phys- 
ical environment appear to be slow. Only sometimes, as when a vast 
forest fire destroys both trees and humus, does the individual get 
any dramatic sense of these changes which alter the entire prospect 
of human and animal life. 

But in the historical view, the changes which have come to 
the United States are as swift, almost, as a lightning flash. The 
ecological record is that of a hundred million years. The human 
record is that of fifteen thousand years, more or less. The destruc- 
tion of the natural resources is a matter of less than a hundred 
years, or one-one hundred and fiftieth of the brief human span. 

Looking forward, mankind is entitled biologically and cos- 
mologically to be alive on this planet for thousands of millions of 
years to come. 

It is very doubtful whether that life will be ecologically 
possible if the destructions of the last hundred years go on for 
another hundred years. 

All of that crisis of history represented by the World War 
or world-armed-preparedness, and even the cataclysm of an engulfing 
war which may be near at hand, is likely in the eyes of history to 
be far less significant than the silent, often irreversable destruc- 
tions of natural ecology, which are going forward over most of the 
planet and nowhere else so fast as in the United States. At least, 
in no other large area has destruction gone ahead in so multiform a 
course, and so needlessly and wantonly, as in the United States. 

Knowledge of how to save the ecological basis of human life 
is already ample. 

Not only is the knowledge at hand, but it is within the 
present practical reach of governments and of non-governmental groups 
to achieve the result within a single lifetime. 

There is no fundamental chaos of interests or conflict of 
interests, standing opposed to the saving of the basic ecology of 
this country. 

If our present generation "passes up" its opportunity, 
and its duty to the whole of future time, what a drab, pitiful, un- 
compensated tragedy it will be. 

On the other hand, this generation has the power, the know- 
ledge, the splendid opportunity. 

Indians are playing a genuinely creative part in the ef- 
fort, just commencing, to save the natural ecology. 

The Indians can do a great deal more than they are doing. 

In all that they do, if it is well done, the Indians are 
reaffirming their own most fundamental tradition as well as estab- 
lishing their claim upon the future. 


Thirty-five years ago, in New York, I was introduced to a 
young Indian girl of striking beauty. This was my first contact with 
an Indian. What impressed me, even then, was a fusion of delicate 
and dignified aristocracy with a joy and an energy of life that often 
are not met with in aristocrats. 

It was many years later that I came to know this girl's 
father. He was Douglas H. Johnston, Governor of the Chickasaw Na- 
tion. Governor Johnston died June 28. Those who spoke at his fun- 
eral suggested that he had been for a generation the representative 
Indian. Certainly, Governor Johnston was a distinguished man from 
every point of view. He was a man of beautiful physiognomy, and the 
physiognomy reflected a character of great beauty. He possessed the 
highest human sensitiveness. He was without egotism, and brought to 
every contact a spirit of detachment. Yet he cared deeply for people 
and for causes. 

Governor Johnston was truly Indian. Yet not only Indian; 
there had entered into his own heritage an element of the aristocracy 
of the Old South. Yet truly and thoroughly Indian he was. His life 
was completely identified with his people. Governor Johnston died at 
83 years and in the fullness of time. 

sfo ^— 

Commissioner of Indian Affairs 


Recent visitors to the Washington Office have included 
the following: Guy Hobgood, Superintendent, Cheyenne and Arapaho 
Indian Agency in Oklahoma; Ben Dwight, Organization Field Agent; 
Frank Beaver, William Davis and Elwood Harlan, all of the Winnebago 
Agency in Nebraska. 



































: • ! "•. 

Indians Working With Hands And Minds 
On Road Construction In Oklahoma 


By G. B. Arthur, 

Supervisor, CCC 
Project Training, 
Department of 
the Interior 

No other word 
forms as long a chain 
of associations for the 
human race as work. It 
is responsible for ev- 
ery refinement in civi- 
lization, every comfort, 
all material security. 
I t has bridged chasms 
of failure and despair. 
It has s obered successes. 
Primeval man knew it as 
essential activity. In 
softer times we have 
branded it drudgery. 
Yet, regardless of seem- 
ing hardship and 
thoughtless prejudice, 
work marks the periods 
of advancement of the 

One of the vagaries of human thinking is the idea that 
serving someone else is work, whereas to be in business is not. An- 
other is that some kinds of work are more honorable than others; 
that work in rough clothes, handling tools, is inferior to work in 
clean attire. Still another notion is that one who labors in the 
field or irrigation ditch really works, but that the foreman does 

Our notions about work have always fitted the circumstances 
in which we lived. There have been times in all races when the men 
were entirely engaged in hunting because most of our food was won in 
that way. And when the paths of competitive tribes crossed the men 
went to war, knowing no other way to protect their rights. Men had 
to train for their pursuits. The woman accepted her place as an in- 
dispensable economic unit, carrying her part of the social burden 
without questioning. Risks were many, fortitude ran high, and losses 
were mourned and soon forgotten. 

Back over that trail of work we search with interest for 
the impulses which have built our concept of labor. When did men 
first see that they did not work with their hands? When did they 
first realize that the truer aim of the hand came by training the 
mind behind the hand? What light gleamed in the first startling 
discovery that fire could be made by friction? When did man first 
look up and understand that he did not live actually in a mortal en- 
casement? When - and how - did we begin to see that work is emanci- 

There are no dates for any of these discoveries. They 
came as men grew. The light spread through the mass of people as 
the ages went by, and more and more men realized that distinction 
and leadership came not by accident nor by any sleight of hand, but 
by superior mental ability and training. Philosophers were content 
with dreamy aloofness in one period of history, and to this day, 
those who sit long in meditation and deal in abstractions are held in 
less esteem than those who vigorously apply their knowledge. Men 
have always seen that ability must be active, it must be expressed, 
applied, if it is to bring any gain. They saw long ago that the 
needs of society must be served with knowledge put to work. Thus we 
came to define work. And thus it became honorable. 

For work is liberation. Nothing can exist without expres- 
sion. The most subtle or the most amazing discovery in one man's 
mind is without entity until he expresses it. Lincoln might have 
stood long on the platform at Gettysburg and thought prodigiously 
with no effect, but he stood there a few minutes only and molded 
the sentiment of a nation with simple words which have been carved 
in stone around the world. 

There is no race or people that can live without expres- 
sion. No person has a right to exist without expressing whatever 
of talent and ability has been given him. It is the sum total of 
these individual expressions which emancipates the race from fears 
and woes and limitations. Only the expressing of a living thing 
can make it live. 

It is the expression of talents and skills and courage 
in other days which made all our records. In every tribe and people 
we glorify those who do great things. In every council men stand up 
and recount the valorous deeds of those who lead through crises. 
Work is the record of humanity. Those who fearlessly stand out and 
use what has been given them for service to their fellows win renown. 
Masses who are content with lesser things glide noiselessly through 
the passes of darkness into oblivion. Time is recorded in the work 
of men. 

In these days it is hard for some to see how their work can 
be important. But it is important. It is important to the individual; 
in it he must serve as an essential unit in the scheme of things, and 
without him some necessary function will go undone. It is important 
to society, which is only the aggregate of all of us, that he should 
do his work. His tithe is needed for the upbuilding of the whole. 

Many of us work for others, which is honorable and con- 
structive, developing sterling qualities and gaining spiritual satis- 
faction. Once discerned, nothing can deprive a man of his inner in- 
tegrity and his pride in inherent manfulness, taking and holding his 
place among others through honest labor. The manager and the fore- 
man, the owner and mechanic, the banker and the preacher, all must 
win respect in this way. There is no other. 

When the work can be done for one's self, or one's own 
people, as among Indians living upon their own lands, work takes on 
a higher quality than it can in any other way. Work then becomes 
something more than labor. It becomes a key to tomorrow. It be- 
comes a channel through which the skillful expression of native abil- 
ity produces commodities which the world wants. Society needs the 
Indians' integrity, their calm and poised outlook upon life, their 
customs and traditions. And it needs their participation in the task 
of molding their own welfare and prosperity. 

Everywhere among Indians today their emancipation grows 
through expression of themselves, their arts and abilities, by means 
of work. The evidence is multiplying more rapidly because we Cauca- 
sians are opening our eyes to the need for practical training toward 
self-expression and self-support. There is no greater need than for 
loosening and flexing our imagination, for opening gates and doors, 
for letting down bars, for making necessary work yield its utmost in 
training. For the Indian, like every other tribe and people, will 
achieve his liberation from social and economic limitations and re- 
strictions through his own work. 


Beyond the roads in Glacier National Park in Northwestern 
Montana extend more than three-quarters of a million acres of prime- 
val wilderness which remain a challenge to the trail rider, hiker, 
and mountain climber alike, Arno B. Cammerer, Director of the Na- 
tional Park Service, stated recently. Excellent fishing abounds in 
the lakes and streams and plant and animal life is protected. 



Navajos Save Famous Chaco Canyon Ruins 

General View Of Pueblo Bonito Ruins, Chaco Canyon National Monument, 
New Mexico. (Circular Structures Are Remnants Of Kivas, The Sacred 

Ceremonial Chambers) 

The ancient and the modern are strangely united at the 
prehistoric city of Pueblo Bonito, New Mexico, where Navajo Indian 
Civilian Conservation Corps workers are engaged in restoring the 
famous ruins of Chaco Canyon, the abandoned empire of 10,000 people. 

A working agreement between the Navajo Indian Service and 
the National Park Service has resulted in the restoration and pres- 
ervation of the priceless rooms of what archaeologists consider some 
of the finest prehistoric pueblos in North America. Since 1937> ap- 
proximately 20 Navajo CCC-ID workers have been at work with trowel 
and mortar, replacing piece by piece, under the supervision of Na- 
tional Park Service archaeologists, the fallen walls and crumbling 
kivao of these great pueblos. 

Pueblo Bonito was occupied from 919 to 1127 A.D. Follow- 
ing the 208-year occupation, the great walls fell prey to the ravages. 

of wind and water and vandal- 
ism before the Federal Gov- 
ernment guaranteed its future 
preservation by setting it a- 
side as a National Monument 
in 1903. No important resto- 
ration work occurred until 
1937 when the Indian Service 
and the Park Service came to 
the rescue. A nearby camp 
was established for the en- 
rollees and the laborious 
task of replacing the iden- 
tical masonry began. Great 
quantities of blow sand have 
covered much of the fallen 
walls. The Navajos remove 
the overburden and with wa- 
terproof mortar, each stone 
is returned to its former lo- 

Stabilization, o r 
the preserving of ruins in 
their present state, has been 
a great need. Prehistoric 
walls, many 800 years old, 
are crumbl ing away from 
weathering and wind erosion. In some cases walls have been broken 
down in unprotected areas by pot hunters. This Navajo CCC-ID unit, 
classified as the "Mobile Unit", also is restoring Aztec ruins lo- 
cated near Pueblo Bonito, and it is hoped will stabilize other ruins 
in great danger of deterioration. 

Chaco Canyon National Monument is located about 86 miles 
north of Gallup, New Mexico. Containing the ancient ruins of 17 ma- 
jor cities and several hundred small villages, it is of unusual pre- 
historic and architectural interest. 

The ruins, many only partially excavated - Pueblo Pintako, 
Kin Klizlin, Penasco Blanco which boasts a tree ring date of 898 A. 
D. , Hungo Pavi, Chettro Nettle, now being excavated by the University 
of New Mexico, Pueblo Bonito and many others - are all that remain of 
a peaceful farming civilization of the ninth to twelfth centuries. 
Most of the ruins are found in the broad shallow canyon bordered by 
buff sandstone walls, the center cut by a deep, crooked arroyo. Pueb- 
lo del Arroyo on the banks of Chaco Wash is slowly being washed down- 
stream by recurrent summer flood waters. The Soil Conservation Serv- 
ice has done much to save these prehistoric apartment houses, but 
more must be done before the danger of complete eventual loss is 


CCC-ID Workmen Engaged In The Restoration Work. 

Most of 
the stabilization 
work has been 
done at Pueblo 
Bonito, the larg- 
est ruins so far 
excavated. Bonito 
is a "D" shaped 
pueblo, covering 
three acre s of 
ground and once 
contained 800 
rooms and 32 
k i v as or cere- 
monial chambers. 
Until 1880, it 
was the largest apartment house in the United States. The rock ma- 
sonry found here is of the best type in the Chaco. The walls, about 
two feet thick, are decorated with bands of rock veneer of varying 
widths, making a pleasing and intricate design with courses two to 
three inches wide laid over a series one-half inch wide. Summer 
floods and alternate thaws and freezes of severe winters cause the 
unprotected walls to deteriorate rapidly. 

Much of the stabilization program calls for capping the 
tops of exposed walls by removing the top layer of stones and re- 
setting them in Bitudobe mortar, replacing recently fallen walls or 
openings, and restoring veneer coursing. 

They have capped thousands of yards of walls; braced walls 
so cleverly that it is not apparent to the visitor; dug drainage 
ditches to prevent water from standing against walls and in kivas; 
replaced thousands of square feet of veneer; waterproofed a kiva at 
Aztec Monument, 64. miles north of Chaco; patched holes with hundreds 
of cubic yards of masonry, and cleared rooms of blown sand. They 
must search for the rock; haul it to the job; remove sand blown 
waste; match rock coursing; erect scaffolds; mix mortar and haul sand 
and gravel for concrete coring or bracing from the San Juan 65 miles 

Archaeologists who come from many parts of the world to do 
research work and excavation among the ancient pueblos of Chaco Can- 
yon are loud in their praise of the job being performed by the Nav- 



A man described in the House of Representatives on July 1 
as "one of the greatest Indian leaders of all time ...a builder of 
our great state of Oklahoma, and a man of great wisdom and strong 
character" died on June 28, in Oklahoma City. 

Last governor to be elected by the Chickasaw Nation, Doug- 
las Johnston has become a familiar figure in the nation's capital 
and throughout the State of Oklahoma in his long battle for the 
rights of his people. 

Having seen half a century in the service of his tribe, 
Governor Johnston was approximately 83 years old when he was over- 
come by illness two weeks before his death while attending his last 
session of Congress in Washington, D. C. It is thought in Washing- 
ton that he attended every session of Congress since 1898. 

Johnston's father, a white man, had held contracts with 
the Federal Government in the early nineteenth century for the re- 
moval of the Five Civilized Tribes from Mississippi and bordering 
southern states to Indian Territory. His father took refuge later 
with the Chickasaw Nation during the Civil War, and Douglas John- 
ston, who was one-eighth Chickasaw, became active in the affairs of 
the Chickasaw Nation in the '80 f s. 

At this time the Five Civilized Tribes had their own 
schools, printing presses, legislatures and courts. Johnston con- 
tracted with the Chickasaw Nation to operate one of its dozen 
schools, the Bloomfield Academy for Girls. He continued in this ca- 
pacity until 1908, although his administration of the school was in 
defiance of the Act of 1906, which subjugated tribal funds, schools 
and government to the United States. 

In the meantime Johnston had been elected Governor of the 
Chickasaw Nation in 1898 and was re-elected three times by the Chick- 
asaws. As Johnston was still Governor in 1906, the Act of 1906 con- 
tinued him in office until death or disability. 

One of the highlights in his career was the famous Supreme 
Court decision in the Choate vs. Trappe case, which held that Indian 
tribal land was not subject to taxation. Johnston also was consist- 
ently instrumental in keeping persons erroneously qualifying as mem- 
bers of the Chickasaw and Choctaw Nations off government . rolls . He 
agitated for the Oklahoma Welfare Act of 1928 and the Act of 1936, 
the second being similar to the Indian Reorganization Act in seeking 
to preserve Indian lands in Oklahoma. 

Johnston's body lay in state in the capital of the State 
of Oklahoma and also in the capital of the Chickasaw Nation, Tish- 
omingo, where he was later buried. 




By J. M. Cooper and Dewey Dismuke* 

The Indian sheep Industry of the Southwest is in the public 
eye because of its threatened extinction through the dissipation of 
Indian range resources. Broad conservation measures, endorsed re- 
cently by the Navajo Tribal Council, hold out the hope that the great 
historical basic economy of approximately 50.000 people will not 

The future of the Navajo people is inseparably tied up 
with their land resources. If these resources continue to be dis- 
sipated as in the past, their main hope for a self-sustaining future 
is gone. The Indian Service has recognized their need for assistance 
and is working on a program designed to stop this land waste and to 
insure maximum future return. If sheep raising is to continue to 
provide a large portion of Navajo income, range wastage through over- 
grazing and erosion must be halted. Livestock numbers must be re- 

*J. M. Cooper, Director, Southwestern Range and Sheep Breeding Lab- 
oratory; Dewey Dismuke, Soil Conservation Service Liaison Officer, 
United Pueblos Agency, New Mexico. 


du ce d to a point 
where the range can 
support them; sheep 
more suited to the 
needs of the people 
must be provi d ed 
and unit production 
of sheep must ba 
increased to offset 
reduction i n num- 
bers. Finally, and 
of vital importance, 
the Navajos must be 
educated in terms 
of range and sheep 


Pueblo lambs fattened on a Kansas feed lot 

The magnitude of the task of improving the range sheep in- 
dustry on the Navajo Reservation is shown by the fact that about 
15,000,000 acres of range land are, or have been used by about 7,700 
sheep owners. It is estimated that 1,350,000 sheep units of live- 
stock were run on this area in 1931. 

Despite the many difficulties encountered, some progress 
has been made toward a solution of this problem. Through cooperation 
with the Soil Conservation Service, much has been accomplished in 
halting active erosion. Engineering structures, water spreading, 
tree planting, and other forms of revegetation have aided in the ef- 
fort to overcome this menace. 

For better administration, the huge reservation area has 
been divided into twenty smaller units; accurate livestock counts 
have been made; and livestock limits set up, based on the carrying 
capacity of the range in each district. Progress has been made in 
the effort to reduce numbers of livestock to a point where the range 
can support them. This point has not yet been reached, however, for 
the reservation still carries about 830,000 sheep units, 5^0,000 of 
which are mature sheep and goats, on a range whose capacity is es- 
timated at 560,000 units. In efforts to reduce numbers, first con- 
sideration is being given to the elimination of non-producing horses, 
wethers, steers and goats, many of which could be removed without a 
corresponding reduction in income. 

More watering-places are being developed to reduce stock 
concentration and make possible a more uniform utilization of the 
range. Where soil and water conditions permit, land is being sub- 
jugated for farming, each acre of which will lessen the Navajos' 
dependence on range livestock. 

Regulations covering the type of rams that are introduced 
on the reservation have been put into effect. Ram pastures to pro- 



** • * 

<^r * 

vide for the care and 
control of rams have 
been built, and are now 
in use. These pastures 
offer great possibili- 
ties a s a means of in- 
fluencing sheep breed- 
ing and management. If 
all rams were controlled 
in pastures, the now 
prevalent pract i ce of 
lambing from January to 
July could b e entirely 

Type of scrub ram to be replaced 
as rapidly as possible 

With t he co- 
operation of the U.S. 
Department of Agricul- 
ture, a laboratory de- 
voted to sheep and wool 
research has been set up in connection with the Navajo Reservation. 
The primary function of this laboratory is to determine and produce, 
by the application of scientific principles, the type of sheep best- 
suited to the Navajo region and the needs of the people. Work has 
begun with the realization that the needs of the Navajo Indian differ 
from those of his white neighbors or other Indian tribes. Some of 
the Navajo wool is used for rug weaving, but the larger portion is 
placed on the market in competition with other domestic supplies. 
Sparse ranges eliminate the possibility of fat lamb production, but 
a sheep for the Navajo should raise a desirable feeder lamb, and 
provide maximum edible meat when slaughtered for family subsistence. 

The present policy on the Navajo Reservation calls for the 
use of smooth, long-fleeced Rambouillet rams on Indian flocks. This 
uniform breeding policy will be continued until thorough testing and 
trial by the laboratory or some other reputable agency demonstrates 
that some other type of sheep is preferable. The laboratory is also 
providing old-type Navajo rams to be used in a small section of the 
reservation for the purpose of maintaining a supply of wool suitable 
for Navajo weaving. A proper distribution of this wool to weavers 
all over the reservation will stimulate weaving, improve the general 
quality of rugs and blankets produced, and increase the income de- 
rived from them. 

By demonstration, administration, education, research, and 
every other means available, the Government is earnestly attempting 
to improve the range livestock industry, and save the land of the 

Efforts to improve Pueblo sheep have been facilitated by 
the fact that, compared to the Navajo, relatively small numbers of 


sheep and people are involved. The different social system has 
also been a factor, for it is much more difficult to carry out a pro- 
gram with a given number of widely scattered and individualistic Nav- 
ajos than it is with an equal number of Pueblos who may be approached 
through their village governmental organization. Lagunas, Acomas and 
Zunis are good farmers, and they realize a larger proportion of their 
annual income from their cultivated land than do the Navajos. While 
the art of weaving originated with the Pueblo people, it is no longer 
an important factor in influencing their sheep industry. All of 
these things made the early sheep improvement efforts along lines of 
commercial demand more practical than was the case with the Navajo. 

While there is still much room for improvement, Pueblo 
sheep are more uniform, yield heavier fleeces, and more and better 
lambs than Navajo sheep. About ten years ago, some Corriedale rams 
were furnished the Zuni Reservation, but the type prevalent on the 
three reservations today is predominately fine-wool. 

Although exact records are not available, during the latter 
part of the 19th century it is believed that the Acomas possessed 
4., 000 to 5,000 sheep and goats; the Lagunas 12,000 to 15,000j and the 
Zunis 12,000 to 15,000. The real increase in numbers began in 1915 
and 1917 under the stimulation of high prices paid for wool and lambs 
during the World War. With the drop in demand and price after the 
war, there were few sales and numbers increased rapidly. For 10 or 
15 years prior to 1935, it is estimated that the Acomas grazed 7,000 
to 10,000 sheep and goats; the Lagunas 20,000 to 25,000; and the 
Zunis 20,000 to 25,000. Some herds contained very few goats, but in 
others they comprised as much as 30 per cent of the total. 

In addition to increased sheep numbers, there was an in- 
crease in population and in the number of individual owners. With no 
definite grazing policy, the ranges became depleted and the erosion 
menace assumed dangerous proportions. A few of the shrewder Indians 
acquired, at the expense of their less ambitious and aggressive 
neighbors, much larger herds than their family needs required. All 
of these things 
c omb in e d to 
make the future 
of the Pueblo 
sheep in dustry 
very uncertain. 

Pueblo owner 
occasion ally 
pr ac tices the 
open-herd meth- 
od of handling 
his sheep, but 

Good type Rambouillet rams used by 
Acoma and Laguna sheep owners. 


ordinarily both sheep and range suffer from excess trailing and con- 
centration around corrals, bedgrounds and watering places. There is 
little rotation of range and the same area is ordinarily used for 
lambing year after year. Following the World War, overstocking of 
reservation ranges was partially relieved by use of adjacent public 
lands. Because of competition from white stockmen, this is no long- 
er possible. 

Realizing that the ranges were badly overstocked, a con- 
certed effort to relieve this condition was started in 1935. With 
the approval of the Indians, plans were formulated to reduce live- 
stock numbers to the carrying capacity of the range in a five-year 
period. This program called for proportionate reduction in sheep 
and cattle; elimination of non-productive stock; the heaviest cut on 
the larger owners; and a uniform breeding improvement program to com- 
pensate the reduction in numbers. 

Practically all of the goats were sold from the Acoma and 
Laguna flocks in 1935. A considerable goat reduction has also been 
made in Zuni flocks. Disposal of this surplus livestock has been 
made in the fall when the animals were in the best condition. The 
Indians have been assisted in the marketing of their surplus each 
year by pooling all stock, classifying them, and selling by auction 
to the highest bidder. This method has resulted in financial advan- 
tage to the individual owners. 

The results of this general program have been encouraging. 
Acoma and Laguna livestock have been reduced until they are now fair- 
ly close to the estimated capacity of their ranges. The Zuni Reser- 
vation, while still overstocked, has not deteriorated to the same ex- 
tent as the other two. It has been demonstrated, and most of the In- 
dian stockmen are convinced, that overgrazing has been the cause of 
much of their trouble. At the start of the program, the attitude of 
the Indians was not as receptive as it is today. Improved practices 
in the handling of sheep and range have been made possible through 
education and through the construction of more adequate watering 
places, corrals and other handling facilities. 

Improvement in the herds is being realized by the gradual 
replacement of all inferior rams with Rambouillets of approved type. 
In addition, the selection of the best of the ewe offspring for re- 
placements is being encouraged. When not in use, ram herds are main- 
tained in pastures or on range set aside for that purpose. This 
practice allows for a regulation of lambing time and insures the con- 
dition of the ram during the breeding period. 

Lambs from the Acoma and Pueblo flocks have recently re- 
ceived considerable favorable attention. In November 1937, Kansas 
State Agricultural College placed a group of Acoma and Laguna lambs 
on feed at the Garden City Experiment Station. These lambs made a 


very satisfactory gain in the feed lot, and topped the packer market 
on the day they were sold. As a result of this demonstration, there 
was considerable demand for similar Pueblo lambs from commercial 
feeders in the Kansas Area in the fall of 1938. 

If the present range and livestock program is retained, the 
future of the Pueblo sheep industry looks promising. Indian coopera- 
tion is good, excess livestock has been greatly reduced, and ranges 
are approaching stabilization. Better management practices are now 
prevailing. With proper attention to sheep type, it is expected that 
in the near future annual income will equal or exceed that derived at 
the time the present program was inaugurated. 

Historically, the Indian flocks of the Southwest are in- 
separably a part of the record of the progress and growth of the Nav- 
ajo and Pueblo Tribes. 

Several Southwestern Indian tribes have long been sheep 
raisers. This is particularly true of the Navajos, and the Lagunas, 
Acomas and Zunis of the Pueblo Tribes. These people have relatively- 
large herds which are the source of a considerable portion of their 
tribal income. 

It is a historical fact that Coronado, in his travels to 
the Rio Grande region in 154-0, brought the first sheep, horses and 
mules into the Southwest. The approximate number of sheep left by 
him is not known, nor is it known whether any of these first animals 
survived the interval before others were again brought in by the 
Spaniards. It is probable, however, that the relatively practical 
Pueblo people recognized the utility of the sheep and maintained it 
from the start. At all events, 
subsequent expeditions in to t he 
Pueblo country in 1581 and 1598 
again brought livestock, and from 
that early date to t he pre s ent, 
sheep have made major contribu- 
tions t o the economic well-being 
of the Indians in the Southwest. 

It is believed that the 
Pueblo Tribes were weavers of 
cotton fabrics before the appear- 
ance of sheep. Cotton clothing 
and blankets are noted in the 
writings of the earliest explor- 
ers. Accounts of the early part 
of the 17th century fail to men- 
tion weaving in connection with 
the Navajo, but it is probable 
that shortly thereafter, b o th 

Shipping Aeoma Lambs 




i 1 

■7 ^ ^^h 


t - 

1 ■ 


■ 4-- 

4 - 


A* 1 





sheep and the art of weaving were acquired by them. There is little 
doubt that the Pueblo was the source of both, for the Pueblo rebel- 
lion that took place late in the 17th century resulted in close con- 
tact between the two people. 

Wool was much easier than cotton to handle with the crude 
hand-weaving tools available, and the resulting woolen fabric was in- 
finitely superior. In addition, sheep were producers of meat as well 
as wool and it is not surprising that Pueblos and Navajos have main- 
tained and steadily increased their flocks. 

The Navajo rapidly built up his flocks. Some sheep may 
have been secured by barter, but most of them were undoubtedly ac- 
quired as the result of raids on their Pueblo and Mexican neighbors 
on the east. These raids appeared entirely legitimate to the Nav- 
ajos of that time and their activities were unchecked until 1863. In 
the five-year period between 1863 and 1868, the United States Army 
conducted a campaign against the Navajo which resulted in the de- 
struction of most of their sheep; the transfer of the tribe to Bosque 
Redondo on the Pecos River; and their final return under treaty to 
their original country. 

At Fort Defiance in 1869, the Navajos were provided with 
15,000 sheep and goats. Original War Department records indicate 
that this purchase was made in Mora County, Territory of New Mexico. 
Nothing in these records would lead to the belief that they were any- 
thing but the common sheep of the region. Some authorities believe 
that the number was in excess of 15,000, and that they were of Cots- 
wold breeding, but there is no documentary evidence to support this 
belief. Regardless of numbers or origin, sheep furnished under the 
treaty of 1868 plus the few remaining from their original flocks 
started the Navajos in the sheep business again. The result of this 
mixture was the old-type Navajo sheep which was well suited to the 
needs of the people at that time. 

Shortly after 1870, Navajo commerce with white people be- 
came important, and the old-type sheep did not satisfy the expanding 
trade. Efforts were then started to "breed-up" this sheep by intro- 
ducing rams of various types of the established breeds. This prac- 
tice has continued up to the present time. The general objective has 
been to increase the quantity and improve the quality of wool and 
mutton for commercial purposes. Unfortunately, there has been no 
uniformity in the improvement policy, and many different breeds and 
types of rams have been used. As a result, the Navajo sheep of to- 
day lacks uniformity, produces very little more wool or mutton than 
the original type and the wool produced is not satisfactory for hand- 
weaving. Great increases in numbers along with poor management prac- 
tices have stripped the ranges of much of the vegetative cover, and 
erosion has become a terrible menace to the reservation. Inferior 
sheep, poorly managed, on an overgrazed and badly eroded range in- 
evitably results in the production of a poor crop of wool and lambs. 
This, briefly, is the problem facing the Navajo today. 




In the Florida Everglades, not far from the city of Miami, 
may be found the picturesque Seminole Indians. Generally preferring 
to remain aloof from the white man, they have nevertheless since Jan- 
uary 1934, taken advantage of the work program afforded by the es- 
tablishment of the CCC. Some of the large projects completed by 
these enrollees are: ^6 miles of range fence built; 21 wells de- 
veloped; 15 miles of truck trails built; 12 miles of standard road 
built and surfaced; 1,293 acres of range improved and developed; 14 
acres of camp ground developed; 663 acres of range seeded and sodded 
and 2,175 shrubs and trees planted. 

The Seminoles, together with similar groups throughout the 
country, celebrated the sixth anniversary of the establishment of the 
Civilian Conservation Corps in the spring. The accompanying photo- 
graphs show the celebration in progress. (Note the interest of the 
women and children spectators at the left. ) 

— -** -■ 

Charles Buster, 67 years old, a Seminole CCC 
worker, is making a running high jump, and 

Young and old alike, 
participated. Here 
Billy Bowlegs, who 
is 72 years old, is 
shown making a 
broad jump and, 

here is the 100-yard dash for young 
men in progress. 


The women were not to be left out either. Here they are shown 
enjoying the refreshments, and 

here, barefooted, with their long, flowing dresses and heavy 
beads about their necks, they are participating in the fifty-yard dash. 



Dr. A. Grenfell Price of Adelaide, Australia, 
Reports His Preliminary Findings in the United States 

Countries having the problem of an aboriginal population 
might well study the new day for Indians instituted in the United 
States, declared Dr. A. Grenfell Price, author and scholar from the 
University of Adelaide, Australia, after a visit to the Department of 
the Interior and its Office of Indian Affairs. 

Dr. Price, after returning from an extensive tour of the 
Southwestern Indian reservations in connection with his study of the 
treatment of native peoples by English-speaking populations, spent 
considerable time studying documents available in the Interior De- 
partment Library. Data assembled here will be used to compare simi- 
lar conditions in Australia, Canada, Alaska and New Zealand. It will 
form the material for another volume to add to his previous publica- 
tions: "White Settlers in the Tropics", "Foundation and Settlement 
in South Australia" and "History and Problems of the Northern Terri- 

After thanking the Secretary of the Interior for the cour- 
tesies extended to him, Dr. Price gave an eye-witness account of the 
work he found in progress, in Nevada, California, Arizona, New Mexico 
and elsewhere. 

"It is clear that historically the Indians of the United 
States suffered as greatly, and for many of the same reasons, as the 
aboriginal peoples in Australia, New Zealand and many other countries 
in the possession of colonizing groups. 

"In the United States the incomers seized the lands of the 
Indians; .repeatedly pushed them into poorer ari"31 poorer country; 
slaughtered such assets as the buffalo; frequently violated solemn 
treaties; murdered them; riddled them with white men's diseases, and 
other ways destroyed them." 

He pointed to the allotment system as an example of "the 
misguided efforts of enlightened members of the government to help 
the Indian." Although designed to give individual Indians land and 
absorb them into the white population, he showed how actually it re- 
sulted in the creation of a landless and indigent class and enabled 
the Indians to dispose of their resources for ready cash. 


Five grave dangers faced the present administration in 
1933; an increase in Indian population; an alarming decrease in In- 
dian land as a result of the allotment system; decreased productivi- 
ty due to soil erosion; an accumulation of Indian paupers on the out- 
skirts of towns and agencies; and the deplorable state of Indian 
health, with high frequency of tuberculosis and trachoma. Rehabil- 
itation in the short period since then and its significant results 
interested Dr. Price greatly. 

"Attempts are being made to meet Indian needs by re-pur- 
chasing for them a little of the land torn from them in previous de- 
cades, and by preventing further alienation by allotment. So long 
as Congress appreciates the rights and needs of the aboriginal peo- 
ples, and the danger of reducing their small remaining resources, the 
tribes will be able to retain their existing lands. 

"As the Indians are increasing and are mainly dependent 
upon primary production, they will need additional land or more pro- 
ductive land in the years to come. These needs are being faced by a 
splendid emergency effort to stop erosion by engineering, vegetation 
work and grazing control. Grazing regulations entered into by the 
Navajos to reduce their stock to the approved carrying capacity of 
their ranges are a good example of Indian Office tact. An authori- 
tarian government would have sent out its officers to destroy the 
vast numbers of useless horses and other stock contributing to the 
erosion. Instead, the Indian Office quietly educates a people, most 
of whom cannot write or speak English, to carry out the reforms of 
their own accord. In some cases pressure has been necessary, but 
after seeing the country and the urgent need of action, I feel that 
even more pressure would be justified. 

"Wholly praiseworthy are the fine efforts made to foster 
secondary industries, such as silver work, rug weaving and basket 
making. The discovery of wider markets (as by means of the magnifi- 
cent exhibition at the San Francisco Fair) and the adoption of Gov- 
ernment stamps to signify genuine Indian goods should assist native 
inaustries and raise living standards. How much this work is needed 
may be seen from the fact that it is estimated that a Navajo woman 
receives about five cents per hour for very laborious rug weaving. 

"One is very much impressed by the health work o f the In- 
dian Department and the fine hospitals and sanatoria which the In- 
dians are beginning to use freely despite opposition from the medi- 
cine men. Particularly satisfactory is the fact that a cure has 
been found for the terrible trachoma which so often results in blind- 
ness. So successful has been this work that one school, entirely 
limited to trachoma cases, is to be closed as its task is completed. 


"The schools seem to be doing excellent work. The trans- 
ference of boarding school pupils to day schools and the home en- 
vironment has been welcomed by the Indians, and is one factor in the 
general policy of permitting the Indians to remain as a self-support- 
ing and self-respecting people rather than attempting to absorb them 
into the white race. I was particularly impressed by the vocational 
work in many schools, such as those on the Paiute and Navajo Reserva- 
tions and the practical way in which the education was adjusted to 
Indian needs rather than to unsuitable white requirements. 

"There is no doubt that the Indian will work and work hard 
if he is lifted from a state of life in which he has no incentive, 
and in which he knows that most of the products of his labor will 
pass to whites. I saw Indians at work in road making, forestry, 
agriculture, pasturing and in home industries and the excellent re- 
sulting products. I was particularly impressed with that fine or- 
ganization»the Indian CCC, both in its practical work in conserving 
and furthering national and natural resources and in its vocational 
and training aspects. 

"While visiting the Mescalero Apache Reservation, I in- 
spected the new housing program initiated by the tribal business com- 
mittee. I visited the houses of Indians whose tribes had responded 
not long ago to white cruelty by reprisals of the worst type and 
found peaceful, comfortable homes and people who obviously regarded 
the superintendent as a guide, philosopher and friend. 

"Among the finest developments of the new work is the re- 
organization of the administration itself by decentralization, by 
the employment of a large number of Indians and by the attempt to re- 
establish among the Indians a measure of local self-government. There 
is no doubt that the Bureau and the reservation officers are proud 
of the success which is being achieved, and are seething with mis- 
sionary energy. One was greatly impressed by the number of compara- 
tively young people who were holding responsible positions and were 
real enthusiasts in their work. 

"I will not attempt to deal at length with the ideology 
which underlies this interesting attempt to rehabilitate the Indian 
in the United States," Dr. Price concluded, "except to say that those 
who now promote it believe that the Indian people and their native 
civilization can make a real contribution to the nation, and that the 
former efforts to destroy everything Indian and to merge these folk 
into the white population were detrimental both to the Indians and to 
the whites." 


Indian Service Supply Ship To Join Byrd Antarctic Expedition 


The NORTH STAR, Indian Service ship which braves the ice 
fields once each year to reach Point Barrow, Alaska, the northern- 
most point on the North American continent, will reverse its voyage 
during the coming year and journey to the opposite end of the 

The ship has been loaned for six months to the Division 
of Territories and Island Possessions in the Department of the In- 
terior for an expedition to the Antarctic. 

The purpose of the U. S. expedition, which will be com- 
manded by Admiral Richard E. Byrd and in which various governmental 
agencies, as well as representatives of recognized American scien- 
tific institutions will participate, is to investigate the possibil- 
ities of resources in the Antarctic and map certain areas whic h 
American explorers have frequented since 1820. 


According to present plans, the NORTH STAR will not make 
its annual voyage to Point Barrow this year, but will embark from 
Seattle, Washington, for South Pole waters about October 15, re- 
turning to its home port around April 19*+0. 

The NORTH STAR, which is one of three ships to be used in 
the expedition, was especially constructed in 1932 for servicing 
the personnel of the Office of Indian Affairs in the isolated areas 
of Alaska. 

The NORTH STAR is a 225-foot wooden vessel with a Diesel 
engine and is of unusually staunch construction. Below the water 
line, the ship is sheathed with Australian iron bark, a wood which 
receives its name because its hard consistency requires that it be 
riveted like iron. The bow and stern are so constructed that if the 
ship hits ice, it slides up on the ice instead of crashing. 

The NORTH STAR has an 1800-ton cargo capacity, a crew of 
25, and accommodations for 23 first-class passengers. The two 
other ships for the expedition, the BEAR, formerly a Coast Guard 
cutter and now owned by Admiral Byrd, and the NORTHLAND, a Coast 
Guard cutter of steel construction, both accommodate larger crews 
but have less tonnage capacity. 

According to plans which are not yet complete, the NORTH 
STAR will be manned by its present crew and captained by S. T. L. 
Whitlam, although provisions are being made for additional person- 
nel, including navigators, radio operators and ice pilots within the 
$3A0,000 appropriation recently granted by Congress for the expedi- 

A private ship, the REDWOOD, will substitute for the NORTH 
STAR beginning the latter part of July, while the BOXER, the other 
Indian Service motor ship, will extend its July voyage as far north 
as Teller and Port Clarence, Alaska. 

Calling at ports along a coast line longer than the com- 
bined coast lines of the United States, the Indian Service ships 
are often greeted on arrival with merry native celebrations. For 
Eskimos, Indians, and whites alike in Alaska, located beyond private 
transportation lines, the arrival of the Indian Service ships mark 
their only touch with the outside world. 

Cargoes of Indian Service ships usually consist of several 
hundred pounds of mail, clothing, reading matter, radios, hundreds 
of cases of canned foodstuffs and building materials to last the 
371 persons employed in the government hospitals and schools main- 
tained for some 30,000 Alaska natives for at least a year. 





By Clyde C. Hall 

(NOTE: The following article is reprinted 
through courtesy of "The American Home Magazine") 


Indian art and modern art are shades of a common color. 
Each is characterized by simplicity of line, strength of form, and 
absence of all extraneous matter. Brought together in two model 
rooms in the Indian exhibit at the Golden Gate International Expo- 
sition, they weld themselves naturally into an effective interior 
motif for American homes. Interpreted in wood, ceramic, and textile, 
they join together happily the romance-adventure of early America 
and the simple utilitarian requirements of rooms in the home of to- 

Adopting an idea of Rene d'Harnoncourt, General Manager 
of the Indian Arts and Crafts Board of the Interior Department, Hen- 
ry Klumb, resourceful young Washington architect, designed the fur- 
niture, all of which was made by Indian students in Oklahoma and New 
Mexico schools. Accessories are completely Indian, from the back- 
rest of the Blackfeet Tribe to the baskets of the Eastern Cherokee. 
In demonstrating that Indian-made articles are distinctly suitable 


for home in- 
teriors, the 
designers of 
the rooms did 
not fast en 
p eace pipes, 
war bonnets, 
o r minia t ure 
birch bark 
canoes to the 
walls of a 
man's d e n. 
Simple, four- 
square rooms, 
with plain 
walls, let the 
craft argue 
its own case 
for public ap- 
proval. Given 
a chance, at 
last, to stand 

on their own feet, Indian arts and crafts present brilliantly their 
unique offering to the adornment of American home interiors. 

The following Indian accessories are among those exhibited: 
PUEBLO: ceremonial drum, used as end table; ACOMA PUEBLO: ash tray; 
TSIA PUEBLO: tile for facing of fireplace, designed and made by an 
Indian; SOUTHWEST: Kachina doll, as ornament for mantelpiece; NAVAJO: 
tapestry, made from woman's dress; SNOHOMISH: divan throw; HOPI: 
"Wedding Plaque" of sumac and rabbit-brush, wall decoration; SANTA 
CLARA PUEBLO: black earthenware pot; KIOWA: man's dance headdress, 
used in ceremonies, decorative piece; IROQUOIS: corn-husk mask, 
decorative piece; BLACKFEET: backrest, willow slats tied with buck- 
skin lacing; CHEROKEE (N.C.): honeysuckle basket; PAPAGO: basket- 
tray of yucca grass and devil's claw; CHOCTAW: homespun table throw 
and tapestry cover for furniture; and KICKAP00: mat woven of native 
Oklahoma grass. 

Rooted deep in the traditions of early America, these In- 
dian craft pieces lend a new warmth and individuality to present-day 
home interiors. Fascinating, the answer to their abiding charm has 
already been suggested in their description - willow, honeysuckle, 
baked earth colors, porcupine hair, yucca grass and devil's claw, 
sumac and rabbit-brush. These are part of America, genuinely our 
own. These, the gifted hands of our own Indian craftsmen fashion 
into articles of beauty for the American home. 

(Photographs by Newsart - San Francisco, California.) 



Butte Dam drilling tests have begun. The dam, estimated 
cost of which is $5,200,(300, will be constructed by the United States 
Indian Service and the Works Progress Administration to impound flood 
waters of the San Pedro River to irrigate San Carlos Project lands. 
Phoenix , Arizona . Republic . 6-29-39 . 

Tom Dodge, son of the last great Navajo war chieftain, 
Chee Dodge, has announced his resignation as special assistant to 
Superintendent E. R. Fryer of the Navajo Reservation to do special 
work. He is a member of the New Mexico Bar Association. Albuquer- 
que . New Mexico . Journal . 6-24--39 . 

Indian CCC workers at the Fort McDermitt Reservation, un- 
der the Carson Agency in Nevada, are busy battling Mormon crickets 
in a unique manner. They have learned that by being quiet they can 
gradually herd the crickets down a canyon, across the Quinn River on 
a specially constructed brush bridge and then head the devastating 
insects three miles across and finally off the reservation. Carson 
City . Nevada . Daily Appeal . 5-25-39 . 

Fred Snite, Jr., 29-year-old Chicago infantile paralysis 
victim, toured the New York World's Fair in his iron lung, escorted 
by the Fair's mounted troupe of Haskell Indians. Philadelphia . Pa . 
Inquirer . 6-29-39 . 

W. H. Murray, former Governor of Oklahoma, paid high trib- 
ute to Douglas H. Johnston, Governor of the Chickasaws, upon his 
recent death. "To me he came as near as any man could to being a 
perfect man, " Mr. Murray said. Oklahoma City . Oklahoma . Oklahoman. 
6-30-39 . 

Five years under the Reorganization Act find the Indians 
and the Government unified as rarely before. The Indian birthrate 
is now the highest in the country and the death rate is falling. 
Federal works and loans are helping the red men to rise above the 
poverty level. St. Louis . Missouri . Post Dispatch . 7-1-39 . 

War dances and ceremonials by Indians of the Pine Ridge 
Reservation and the unveiling of Sculptor Gutzon Borglum' s last fig- 
ure (that of Teddy Roosevelt) at Mount Rushmore will be features 
at the jubilee celebration observing South Dakota's Golden Anni- 
versary of statehood. The CBS National Radio Network will broad- 
cast the ceremonies. Sioux Falls. South Dakota . Argus-Lea der . 
6-25-39 . 


Chief Black Cloud of the Chippewas, a civil engineering 
graduate of Carlisle and a former agent of the United States Geo- 
graphic Survey, is making arrangements for a week-long celebration 
and festival at Pontiac, Michigan, in July. More than 1,500 Chip- 
pewas will attend. Among the distinguished men invited are Presi- 
dent Roosevelt, Governor Luren D. Dickinson, United States Senators 
Arthur H. Vandenberg and Prentiss Brown, Congressman George A. Don- 
dero and State Highway Commissioner Murray D. Van Wagoner. Pontiac, 
Michigan . Press . 6-26-39 . 

Mr. A. C. Monahan, Regional Coordinator for the Indian 
Service, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, in a letter to Lewis Ware, Pres- 
ident of the American Indian Exposition, verified plans for cooper- 
ation of every Indian agency and Government Indian school in Okla- 
homa with the Exposition, to be held August 23, 24, 25, and 26. 
Anadarko, Oklahoma . 7-5-39 » 

A carefully worked out educational project of the United 
States Indian Service is the Cottage Dormitory idea at the Standing 
Rock Indian Agency, Fort Yates, North Dakota, where Indian boys and 
girls living too far to reach the high school by bus are selected 
to live a normal family home life. Boston . Massachusetts . The 
Christian Science Monitor. 7-5-39. 

- D.C.B. - 


In the year when the Norman knights defeated King Harold 
at Senlac and conquered Saxon England, Indians were using stone axes 
to chop down pine trees to log-roof a cliff dwelling in a canyon of 
what is now the Mesa Verde National Park in Colorado. 

Those log-beams survived through the centuries. According 
to the tree-ring method of dating, the earliest of the many masonry 
cliff ruins in this area was built about 1066 A.D. For several cen- 
turies previously the Mesa Verde was occupied by the ancestors of 
the present Pueblo Indians of New Mexico. Remains of the ancient 
Basket Makers, a still earlier people, have been found in several of 
the Mesa Verde caves. (Reprinted from "Facts and Artifacts.") 







WASHING HAIR, a painting by 15-year- 
old Marie Abeita, a Pueblo Indian 
girl. This painting was a part of 
the American Indian Children's Art 
Exhibition. (Photograph by Federal 
Art Project. ) 

Paintings and draw- 
ings by Indian children of 
the Pueblo, Cherokee, Apache, 
Papago, and Navajo Tribes 
were exhibited from June 6 
to 20 at the Children's Fed- 
eral Art Gallery in Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

The drawings showed 
unusual ability, sense of de- 
sign and action. Some of the 
art was in the traditional 
Indian stylized form w i th 
rain-cloud, thunderbird, and 
plant patterns. Others com- 
bined traditional motifs with 
modern interpretation; still 
others broke completely with 
the past. 

For instance, a Navajo boy is influenced entirely by trib- 
al tradition. His figures are typically Indian and in relief. Their 
costumes are exquisitely drawn with subtle coloring. The paintings 
are a decorative design. Sev- 
eral other drawings were por- 
trayed in the Indian manner, 
but, such as WASHING HAIR de- I 
picted scenes from modern 
daily life. 

Features of the In- 
dian and white schools were 
combined in other drawings. 
The most interesting of these 
two was a two-wall frieze in 
crayon, showing a corral and 
bucking bronco scene, an im- 
aginative and unusual under- 
taking for a young boy. 

By contrast, t he 
vicious-looking bull (on the 
right), is influenced by mod- 

This vicious-looking bull was painted 
b y 17-year-old Stephen R e d B o w, an 
exhibitor in the American Indian Chil- 
dren's Art Exhibition. (Photograph 
by Federal Art Project.) 


em technique. Likewise, Noah Jumping Elk of Black Pipe School in 
South Dakota, in his painting of Indians at a Square Dance, has a 
keen eye, quick to catch figures in motion. The people, the scene, 
perspective, background and concept are realistic, according to white 

m "K" ~n ">C /f Tr "IC -rt 7T -ft- Of "/C -fC « -Jf "K" 


The appointment of John V. Quinlan as Manager of the Men- 
ominee Indian Mills* at Neopit, Wisconsin, has been announced by 
Secretary of the Interior, Harold L. Ickes. Mr. Quinlan succeeds 
Herman W. Johannes who resigned to become general manager of a lum- 
ber company at Rib Lake, Wisconsin. 

Since 1905 Mr. Quinlan has been in the employ of the Men- 
ominee Bay Shore Lumber Company at Soperton, Wisconsin, and for sev- 
eral years, has been Vice-President and General Manager of the com- 
pany. The Indian Office feels very fortunate in obtaining his serv- 
ices to direct timber operations on the reservation. 

One of the largest Indian industrial enterprises, ranking 
with the more extensive private lumbering concerns in the Lake State 
Region, the Menominee Indian Mills last year sold around 15,000,000 
board feet of white pine, hemlock and hardwood lumber, which, with 
its by-products, was valued at approximately $754,000. 

Operating for more than 30 years under the La Follette Act 
of 1908, the Indian Mills have carried on lumber activities on the 
nearly 200,000 acres of forest on the Menominee Indian Reservation. 
Under a sustained yield plan, the maximum annual cut of timber is 
fixed by statute in order to preserve the Menominee forest capital 
and thus assure for posterity a perpetual revenue. 

* See "Indians At Work", December 1, 1936 and July 1939 .~~ 

Water will be lifted from the Main Canal of the Gila Dam 
Project in Arizona at three separate pumping plants and distributed 
by concrete-lined canals to approximately 150,000 acres of irrigable 
land in the Yuma Desert Area. The irrigation project, according to 
present plans, will not extend to Indian lands. 



The na- 
tive Eskimos of 
isolated King 
Island in the 
Bering Sea have 
adopted a consti- 
tution for self- 
government. It 
has taken since 
last January for 
news of the elec- 
tion to reach the 

«... t- i - j>' * im. n .. o Office of Indian 

King Island In The Bering Sea Affairs in Wash- 

ington. The adoption of a constitution by the 180 King Islanders 
makes one hundred tribes in the United States and Alaska that have 
taken this action. 

Marooned on their rock-like home during all but the sum- 
mer months, the action of the King Islanders in drawing up a con- 
stitution in order that they may take advantage of the terms of the 
Alaska Act of 1936, which is similar to the Indian Reorganization 
Act, is heartening to Indian Service officials. 

For here is a group who makes its home on what is thought 
to be a mountain top, jutting 940 feet out of the sea. And its 
struggle for existence is as rugged as its island home. 

Duri n g 
the winter months 
the King Island- 
ers hunt walrus. 
When the ice be- 
gi n s to melt in 
June, the King 
I s 1 an ders move 
wholesale to 
Nome, A laska, 
which is ninety 
miles s o uthwest 
o f them a c ross 
the Bering Sea. 
They travel i n 

Houses On Stilts At King Island 


oomiaks (boats of animal skins, modernized in the last ten years 
with the addition of outboard motors). 

In Nome the King Islanders sell their ivory tusks and find 
employment as ivory-carvers or longshoremen. As soon as they are 
able to purchase food and clothing supplies to last the winter months 
they return to their isolated homes, usually in September. 

The island is about one-half a mile wide and one mile long. 
The village consists of about twenty small houses propped up against 
walls of rock by means of long poles, and a new schoolhouse which 
was built about eight years ago. 

The Indian Office has employed a teacher at King Island 
for almost twenty years, but it was not until four years ago that 
a white teacher was found for this almost inaccessible post. 

With the adoption of a constitution, the King Islanders 
may now apply for a loan in order to market their goods and secure 
their economic livelihood. 

* * * * * * * 


In order to facilitate the administration of Indian af- 
fairs in the sparsely settled areas of Southern Nevada and Utah, ap- 
proximately a dozen reservations formerly under the Paiute Indian 
Agency were placed under the jurisdiction of three other agencies 
on July 1. The Paiute Indian Agency at Cedar City, Utah, will be 

The reservations have been divided among the agencies as 
follows: Carson Agency: Las Vegas Colony and Moapa River Reserva- 
tion; Western Shoshone Agency: Goshute, Skull Valley and Gandy Res- 
ervations; Uintah and Ouray Agency: Shivwits, Kaibab, Kanosh, Koosh- 
harem, Cedar City and Paiute (or Indian Peak) Reservations. 

Three clerks employed at the Paiute Agency are being trans- 
ferred to the other three agencies. Mr. C. L. Lynch, Acting Super- 
intendent, will remain at Cedar City during July and August to as- 
sist in distributing the property and records among the agencies 
which will take over the work. 



By John M. Scott, Holy Rosary Mission Boarding School 

Harvest time finds the young Sioux Indian boys of Holy Rosary 
Mission storing up supplies for the winter season. 

Some four miles north of Pine Ridge may be found the thriv- 
ing gardens of the Holy Rosary Mission. There, last season, from 
fifty 150-foot rows of carrots planted, came smooth Early Chant enays 
and wide-shouldered Danvers to the number of five hundred bushels. 
And this is but one of the many vegetables which thrive in the South 
Dakota soil. From 4,000 cabbage plants, there came not only enough 
for the table, but enough to make thirteen barrels of sauerkraut; 
while almost every one of the ^00 cauliflower plants grew into fine 
solid heads. Nine 150-foot rows of cucumbers provided enough for 
table use during the summer and also gave nine barrels of pickles 
which are being served to the Sioux boys and girls as relish at the 
dinner table. Fifty-two 150-foot rows of onions gave a yield of over 
150 bushels. Everything from celery to eggplants thrive in this gar- 
den. The secret? Plenty of water and fertilizer, and war on bugs, 
fleas, army worms and grasshoppers. 

The convenient White Clay Creek furnishes ample water. The 
creek is about eighteen feet below the ground level where it flows by 
on the north side of the garden, so a stretch of flumes and irriga- 
tion ditches were made to tap it further upstream. 

The chicken house and dairy barn supply all the fertilizer 
needed. The fresh manure, however, is not put on the garden, but is 


thrown together with the old bedding, 
into a large pit some ten feet deep, 
where it is allowed to stay for a 
year or more. Frequent floods of 
water are allowed to soak in upon it 
by opening the flume in one of the 
irrigation ditches. During the fall 
months this well-decomposed fertiliz- 
er is dug out of the pit, tossed on 
the wagons, and spread around the 

As water and fertilizer are 
plentiful, it looks as though there 
should be a bumper crop every year, 
but there are the fleas, army worms, 
beetles and grasshoppers, which of 
late years have done much damage to 
crops. And though the grasshoppers 
swarmed over the fields last summer 
like armies on the march, Brother 
Schlienger, the gardener, feared them 
the least. Every morning, while the 
squadrons of hoppers were on the ad- 
vance, he entrenched his garden be- 
hind a line of bran mixed with syrup, poison and sawdust. With this 
fortification the majority of the hoppers were held off, though some 
did break through and invaded the carrots, onions and beans. From 
the first two mentioned, the grasshoppers were easily dislodged by 
sprinkling the poisonous mixture on the tops of the carrots and on- 
ions. But with the beans, it was a more difficult task, for the 
poison did as much harm to the bean leaves as it did to the hoppers, 
so the poison had to be scattered on the ground around the plants. 

The result of all this labor is a seasoned table graced 
with a variety of garden foodstuffs fresh and tasty. From the early 
peas and asparagus to the Golden Bantam corn and the Hearts of Gold 
muskmelon you can sit down and satisfy your hunger with the appetiz- 
ing and healthy foodstuffs grown in the garden southwest of the 

One of the students dis- 
playing the large-size 
carrots grown in the 

Besides satisfying the appetites of the hungry Sioux, the 
garden also serves as a training ground, teaching the lads how they 
too may grow successful crops; in fact, not only the boys themselves 
are shown how to raise gardens, but some of the older men drop a- 
round to inquire how to produce certain crops. Thus, the garden 
serves a two-fold purpose - as a provider for the pantry and hungry 
stomachs, and as a practical lesson in the art of making the most of 
the Good Earth. 




Two Navajo rug weavers are demonstrating to the public 
their methods of using natural dyes to color the yarn they weave 
into rugs at the Indian exhibit in connection with the Golden Gate 
International Exposition at San Francisco. 

The weavers are Zonie Lee of Fort Defiance, and Mabel Bum- 
side of Fort Wingate, New Mexico. They have set up their hand looms 
in the Indian exhibit where, it is expected, they will work until the 
Exposition ends. Each has woven rugs that have won first prizes 
against exceedingly strong competition in the Southwest. 

The weavers have brought with them raw wool just as it is 
when sheared off sheep on the Navajo Reservation. They clean, spin, 
and card the wool before it can be dyed. The public has more than 
one chance to see the dyeing process since Navajos usually dye at 
one time only enough yarn to make one rug. Because several rugs 
will be woven, the dyeing process will be repeated many times. Hence, 
persons particularly interested in watching the making of a Navajo 
rug from start to finish are able to follow the development step by 
step - spinning, carding, dyeing, and weaving. 

One of the finest weavers among the younger group in New 
Mexico, Mabel Burns ide, graduated this year from the Fort Wingate 
High School for Indians. 

For the first time since the Exposition opened, a papoose 
came to the Indian exhibit when Mrs. Lee arrived with her three-year- 
old daughter, Dolly May. In native costumes, the two Navajo weavers 
and tiny Dolly May have added a domestic touch to the open-air In- 
dian market-place. 

Expertly woven, Zonie Lee's rugs are selling almost as soon 
as they are taken from the loom, despite the fact that they command 
good prices. 

Originally all Navajo blankets were colored with natural 
dyes, but when the white man began to use the blankets for rugs, 
the weavers used commercial dyes to satisfy white demands for bright- 
er colors. 

Encouraged by the Indian Arts and Crafts Board to preserve 
their original methods, many Navajos are now returning to the use of 
natural dyes - vegetable, animal, and mineral - which, although less 
flamboyant, hold their color better and impart to the fabric a posi- 
tive note of authenticity. Present plans contemplate preparation of 
the dyes over an open fire in the market-place. 




Passing Of The Old Regime For The Indians 

Beginning Of The New Era 

*See July 1939 Indians At Work 

Pictures Courtesy Section of Fine Arts, Treasury Department 



Word has been passed among California ranchers that genuine 
Indian-fashioned rawhide lariats are once again available near home - 
a possible explanation for the brisk trade in "horse leather" in the 
Indian market-place of the Golden Gate International Exposition at 
San Francisco in California. 

Encouraged by the Indian Arts and Crafts Board of the In- 
terior Department to sell their craft at the Exposition, the Papago 
Tribe of Arizona appropriated money to send their famous yucca-and- 
devil's-claw baskets to Treasure Island. Almost as an afterthought, 
they also sent several pieces of what they call "horse leather" 
rawhide quirts and lariats. Displayed for little more than two weeks 
in the Indian market-place, the lariats were sold out to eager pur- 
chasers among West Coast ranchers who had been sending to Mexico for 
their cattle rope, because hand-twisted rawhide lariats were no long- 
er made locally. One told another, and today the second shipment of 
Papago Indian lariats is nearly gone. 

About as thick as a man's little finger, the four-strand 
lariat is made of "live" or recently-slaughtered steer hide in 
lengths varying from 27 to 45 feet. The hondo, or loop through which 
the rope passes, is also made of rawhide, hardened by soaking in hot 
water. It is a favorite lariat of Southwest cow-punchers who, be- 
sides using it on the range, prefer its tough reliability for steer- 
roping contests at rodeos. 

In ceremonies held recently celebrating the fifth anniver- 
sary of the enactment of the Taylor Grazing Act of 1934, Secretary 
of the Interior Harold L. Ickes paid high tribute to eighty-one- 
year-old Representative Edward T. Taylor, of Colorado, author of the 
first Federal grazing control legislation. 

The act which bears Representative Taylor's name was char- 
acterized by Secretary Ickes as one of the greatest conservation 
measures ever passed by the Congress of the United States. The Tay- 
lor Act provides for control of livestock grazing and improvements 
on one hundred and twenty million acres of public land in fifty Fed- 
eral grazing districts in ten Western states. 



Removal of the New York Indian Agency from Salamanca to 
Buffalo, New York, was ordered recently by Secretary of the Interior 
Harold L. Ickes, as a means of increasing the efficiency of admin- 
istration of the affairs of the 6,600 New York State Indians on seven 

Indian matters in New York are handled by both Federal and 
state governments and many branch offices of the state agencies con- 
cerned with Indians are located at Buffalo. Also, the fact that Buf- 
falo is more accessible to the largest number of reservations in the 
state is another factor involved in the change. 

At Salamanca will remain a sub-office containing the rec- 
ords needed to transact the large real estate business that has grown 
up there, since a great deal of property is tribally owned and leased 
to whites. 

Probably, Salamanca also will continue to witness the tra- 
ditional ceremony of giving to each Indian annually the six yards 
of calico set forth in a treaty of 1794 as a perpetual right. Each 
year this cloth is dispensed by the Government as part of its obliga- 
tion to insure that the Indians will remain in "peace and friendship" 
with the United States. 


Surprised at the color of the new lake above Parker Dam, 
formed by the coffee-colored water of the Colorado River, the lead- 
er of a band of Mojave Indians recently called it "Havasu. " In the 
Mojave Indian language "Havasu" means "blue. " 

Feeling that the word was appropriate for the new artifi- 
cial lake which is a clear blue, despite its source, the Secretary 
of the Interior, Harold L. Ickes, and John C. Page, Commissioner of 
the Bureau of Reclamation, proposed "Havasu" as the official name 
for the lake. 

Havasu Lake will cover 25,000 acres and will extend from 
the dam near Parker, Arizona, to a point a few miles south of Needles, 



AMERICAN INDIAN MODERN. Indian exhibit at the Golden Gate Interna- 
tional Exposition. C. C. Hall. American Home. 22:25. 
July 1939. 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS. Exhibition of prehistoric basket-maker 
Indians of Southwestern Colorado. Science. 89:552. June 

Bulletin of Pan American Union. 73:322-36. June 1939. 

LET THE LNDIANS GROW UP! E. G. Eastman. The Social Frontier. July 

ON LEARNING TO SPEAK. E. G. Eastman. Education. 59:610-612. June 


APPLIED ZOOLOGY. F. Thone. Science News Letter. 35:367. June 10 

- E.M.- 

* ft -ft -:;- -*«-*-& * * * 

The National Park Service has announced its radio series 
"Nature Studies" will be continued throughout the summer on Satur- 
day mornings, ending September 9. 

The fifteen-minute programs may be heard over the Red Net- 
work of the NBC at 8:45 a.m. (Mountain Standard Time) or 10:4.5 a.m. 
(Eastern Standard Time). 

The broadcasts which are handled through field microphones 
during trailside discussions in Junior Nature School parties are 
scheduled for the remainder of the summer as follows: 

July 15: "A Stroll Among The Trees"; July 22: "Wildlife 
At The Roadside"; July 29: "Keeping Up With Wildlife"; August 5: 
"Scouting The Trailside"; August 12: "Flowers Of The Fading Season"; 
August 19: "Six Legs, Or Eight?"; August 26: "Plant Journeys"; 
September 2: "Reading The Mountains 1 Story"; September 9: "A Mu- 
seum Visit. " 




Insects and forest fires 
have been keeping the enrollees of 
the Indian Division of the Civilian 
Conservation Corps busy during the 
last month or more. Field activity 
reports from reservations throughout 
the West tell of the fight being made 
by the Indians to save their lands 
and crops from destruction by fire 
and pests. 


-.' <■*&. 

' ^JFr^llfc *!''.j»i£ 

CCC Enrollees Build Roads In The 
Desert. Pima Agency, Arizona. 

--x--_- 4 

A Section Of The Finished 

McDowell Truck Trail At 

Pima Agency, Arizona. 

Fort Totten Agency , North 
Dakota , states that "The Grasshopper 
Eradication Project is well under 
way. One crew of eight men are mix- 
ing and sacking the poison with a 
one -bag cement mixer. One truck is hauling the 
mixed bait to the various spreaders throughout 
the reservation. All Indian land infested with 
the pest will be covered. " 

Other reservations are equally active 
such as Rocky Boy ' s , Montana , where "Several 
crews of men are scattering poison bran with 
good results", or Winnebago . Nebraska ., who 
states that "We are making a start on grass- 
hopper control; an effort will be made to keep 
ahead of the 'hoppers on Indian and trib al 
lands" and at Fort Peck . Montana, "Two thousand 
four hundred and forty-four acres of land were 
covered by both the west and east end crews. " 

Mormon crickets as well as grasshop- 
pers have been a problem for the CCC-ID to 
tackle and the effectiveness of the enrollees' 
work can be judged by the report from Western 
Shoshone Agency , Nevada , that "Three hundred 
bushels of crickets were trapped by the use of 
tin barriers and 100 acres of infested areas 
were sprayed. " 

That the work of insect control is 
not easy is shown by the report from Sisse t on 
Agency , South Dakota, which states that, "Work 
of this nature is guided by the weather ele- 
ments and they have been ideal during this week. 


The only bad feature here is 
that part of having to get up 
at 4. a.m. in order to start 
work at 5 a.m. The crew who 
spreads by hand now has a- 
dapted itself to met hods 
prescribed and is doing ex- 
cellent work. " 

Dry summer weather 
increased the fire haza r d 
throughout the nation, and 
the CCC-ID did its part in 
suppression work. At the 
Sells Agency ( Papago ) , Ariz - 
ona , "Fire broke out in Al- 
hambra Valley and covered ap- 
proximately 2,000 acres. The 
men on this fire were handi- 
capped because of the steep- 
ness of the slopes, rocky 
ledges, and the changing wind, 
although they all made good 
headway and did the job up in 
excellent condition. " C r ow 
Agency , Montana , stated that 
"most of the boys were out on 
the fire line fighting fires 
in the Wolf Mountains" and 
Tulalip Agency , Washington, 
reported that "It was neces- 
sary to put 10 men on a fire 
fighting project to sup- 
press a 200-acre farm 
fire" while Jic arilla 
Apache Agency , New Mex- 
i c o, had twenty men 
fighting forest fires. 
Small fires were sup- 
pressed by CCC-ID crews 
at Fort Berthold Reser- 
vation , North D a kota , 
and at Mescalero Agency , 
New Mexico. 

fighting them were taught en- 
rollees in fire schools on a 
number of reservations. At 
Colville Agency , Washington, 
"The boys attended the fire 
school at Coyote Creek Camp. 
The finer points of fighting 
fire were taught, as was the 
necessity of having the prop- 
er tools to fight fire and 
the correct way to use them. 
Instructions were also given 
in radio operation and the 
Agency doctor gave a very in- 
teresting talk on first-aid. " 

When not interrupted 
by forest fires and insects, 
the CCC-ID enrollees are go- 
ing ahead with their work of 
conserving the natural re- 
sources of the Indian people, 
besides learning many useful 
trades themselves. A report 
from the Cheyenne River Agen- 
cy, South Dakota, states that 
"It is a pleasure to watch 
the operation of the elevat- 
ing graders, blades and trac- 
tors under the guidance of 
all Indian operators. They 
remind you of a professional 

The danger of 
forest fires and the 
methods of locating and 

Practical CCC-ID Training At Potawatomi, (Kansas), 
Enrollees Taking Field Trip To Study Value Of 
Contour Farming On 400-Acre Ranch. 


contracting crew for the re- 
sults they get. So far, over 
a period of several years, I 
have failed to see any differ- 
ence in their efforts to ac- 
complish as much as possible 
in production efficiency and 
care of the machines. The en- 
rollees are to be commended 
for their cooperating spirit 
and willingness." 

That the Indian en- 
rollees are interested in sav- 
ing the history and arts of 
their people is shown in a re- 
port from Siss eton A gency , 
South Dakota . which states 
"The camp site project now in 
progress at the Beaver Dam at 
Sica Hollow is in many ways a 
worthy undertaking. Henry Roy, 
the original locator there,' 
was one of the outstanding In- 
dians of the old type. The 
old Hudson Bay Fur Company had 
many notable gatherings there. 
It was, and still is, a tribal 
gathering spot. We will even- 
tually bring out the beauties 
of this place, not artificial- 
ly, but by helping nature." 
And at United Pueblos Agency , 
New Mexico , under a project 
for the restoration of his- 
toric structures the enrollees 
are "leveling and eliminating 
danger of cave-ins at clay 
pits where Indians get clay 
for pottery. " 

Enrollee train in g 
receives its share of space in 
the current reports. The 
Flat head Ag e n c y , Montana, 
tells of one week of educa- 

tional activities as follows: 
"The enrollee program activi- 
ties for the week consisted of 
the following: machine opera- 
tion, job-training and support 
training at the Valley Creek 
Camp, carpentry job-training 
at the Irving Lookout Camp, 
safety meetings at all camps 
and a one-day fire training 
school at the agency tribal 
hall on Friday. " 

At Cheyenne R iv er 
Agency , South Dakota , t h ey 
have just finished building an 
enrollee traveling library and 
their report states that, "It 
is a fine addition to our en- 
rollee program-education and 
welfare. The trailer was 
built to specifications as 
furnished by our district of- 
fice at Billings. It is built 
for year-round ser vice and 
conv enie nc e, heat in g, and 
lighting included. We have 
made arrangements with the a- 
gency school to bor row 100 
books at a time, on a two-week 
exchange basis. The traveling 
library starts out among our 
crews and loans out books to 
individuals with the under- 
standing that they are to be 
returned within the two-week 
period, and in turn, they are 
permitted to sign for other 
books. When convenient, other 
arrangements will be made for 
books and magazines from other 
sources. A motion pic ture 
projector will be added to the 
library when arrangements can 
be made." 


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